Is autism a disability? Autism In India

 Is it an autism disability? What is an autism spectrum disorder? 

Autism is one of the most searched and rare medical conditions throughout the world. People have so many questions about autism like Is autism a disability? and some other questions also such as;

  • What is autism spectrum disorder?
  • What are the symptoms of autism?/ What autism symptoms
  • Autism in children.
  • Autism meaning in Hindi 

These are some of the most commonly asked questions in search engines all over the world. Today we will discuss autism and also solve your query about is autism disability? 

So read this full article we hope that it will be very beneficial for you. Also, we post regularly about health and mental health you can check those articles also.

What is Autism? / Introduction of autism

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes several conditions such as 

  • Autistic order
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder, not otherwise specified(PDD-NOS)
  • Asperger’s Syndrome

These all are called together as autism spectrum disorders.

Definition:- Autism Spectrum Disorder is a developmental disability causing symptoms in social interaction and communication.

Video courtesy:- behavior frontiers

Development of the field: I

Origins of interest 

  • Feral children Institutions in the 1800S
  • Leo Kanner 1943- 1st Description
  • Autism and ” insistence on sameness”
  • Asperger 1944 – ” autistic personality disorder “
  • Same word but more verbal, special interest + family history
  • Effectively this sets the current tension between narrow and broad views

Initially, there was a lot of confusion about autism spectrum disorder conditions and causes. Even so, ASD research continues to have new findings.

ASD wasn’t narrowly defined and we mean that loosely because it’s a spectrum disorder, until recently diagnosis was restricted to individuals with severe social and/or intellectual functioning.

It is understood that autism spectrum disorder can range from mild to severe as there is a wide degree of variation in how it affects a person.

Diagnostic information of autistic spectrum disorder.

the federal definition of  autism spectrum disorder in an individual with disabilities education act is stated that ” significantly affecting the verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction.. that adversely affects a child’s educational performance”

What are the symptoms of autism? 

According to the idea for ASD is evident when a child is 3 years old or younger some other characteristics of  autism spectrum disorder include;

  • Performing repetitive activities
  • Stereotyped movement 
  • Resistance to the daily routine
  • Resistance to environmental changes 
  • and unusual responses to sensory experiences.

New Jersey defines autism spectrum disorder very similarly almost verbatim which shows the government and the state definitions are consistent with each other and as such agree to the conditions and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder.

The diagnostic and statistical manual V

The diagnostic and statistical manual V or the DSM-5 is very specific as it mentions children with an autism spectrum disorder. show persistent deficits in social communication and interactions across multiple contexts. It describes the multiple contexts;

  • As having ranges of social-emotional reciprocity
  • Nonverbal communicative behaviors
  • Maintaining and understanding 
  • Relationships repetitive and restrictive behaviors 
  • Stereotyped movements 
  • Rigid thinking and 
  • Hyperactivity or hypoactivity to sensory input

DSM-5 describes these symptoms must be present during the child’s early development period. So for our next section, we’re going to go into contextual information. 

Contextual information about Autism

Children with  autism spectrum disorder are described as being on the spectrum, but what does that mean in layman’s terms “the spectrum varies from very high to very low levels of emotional, social and cognitive functioning.”

In mild autism

So at the high end of the spectrum, the signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are mild. In fact, people with high-functioning autism usually have average to above-average intelligence and communication skills. The level the function can be so high that outside people are unaware of a person even having autism spectrum disorder

In severe autism

On the other end of the spectrum, children with low functioning autism spectrum disorder have severe signs and symptoms. Which of course reflects their intelligence and communication skills. 

Students with low functioning autism spectrum disorder are more likely to be challenged mentally. They have epilepsy and have limited expressive and receptive language. 

Children with autism spectrum disorder who are verbal may say words or phrases that do not have any meaning or are out of context. They may repeat words they heard at an earlier time, additionally, some children with autism spectrum disorder may speak in a high-pitched singsong or robotic voice. 

Milestones for Autism

Milestones are important for parents and physicians to monitor a baby’s development learning and behaviors. 

Parents are usually the first to notice their child is not meeting these important milestones because they are typically missed during the baby’s development. There are no medical tests for autism spectrum disorder therefore trained physicians and psychologists must administer autism-specific behavior evaluations. 

Parents may notice that their child does not make eye contact respond to his name or that he plays with his toys unusually or repetitively. 

Cognitive skills in autism

Like we’ve mentioned autism spectrum disorder is a spectrum disorder so the cognitive skills of children with ASD vary greatly. 

The more severe the ASD is the more our child’s cognitive skills and development are affected. Regardless of where a child is on the spectrum, it is typical for children with ASD to have unevenly developed cognitive skills. 

Where verbal skills are weaker than nonverbal skills. They usually perform better in tasks consisting of immediate memory and visual skills and have a tough time with tasks consisting of symbolism and abstract thinking. 

Physical Development in autism

ASD affects the lower brain which is responsible for balance and coordination therefore children with autism spectrum disorder often face physical development delays. 

They also have low muscle tone and affected fine and gross motor skills as such, It makes smooth changes and transitions from lung movement to another very difficult for children with an autism spectrum disorder

Social & Emotional Characteristics in autism 

Children with autism spectrum disorder are mostly affected across social and emotional characteristics 

  • They oftentimes find it hard to recognize facial expressions and emotions 
  • Used emotional expressions 
  • Copy expressions 
  • Understanding control their own emotions and 
  • Understand and interpret others’ emotions. 
  • They develop slower emotional responses  

Because of their social and emotional deficits, children with autism spectrum disorder find it hard to use their emotions and manage social situations to the point where they might display a lack of concern or mistreat social situations. 

Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder sometimes scan faces more than typical developers. Do spend less time looking at people in the eyes and spend more time looking at people’s mouths. 

It’s not that every individual doesn’t want to relate with people, it’s just that they could simply be lacking the skills to develop peer relationships. 

Common social deficits with autism

  • Common social deficits include 
  • The ability to open and conclude conversations 
  • Initiating peer interaction 
  • Joining peers while playing 
  • Decoding facial and body language 
  • Observing and mimicking appropriate social behavior and 
  • Predicting and understanding peers’ emotions. 

Parents and specialists can teach social skills such that the deficit margin will not be substantial for some children with an autism spectrum disorder. However, for others, the social sense may never be fully achieved.

Strengths & Weakness in Autism

Every child on the spectrum presents unique abilities symptoms and challenges here are some of their strengths and weaknesses. These all depend on where the child is placed on the spectrum 

Weakness in autism 

  • social skills and unwritten rules of social interaction 
  • speech and language problems 
  • restrictive activities and interests 
  • sensory activity and the need for sensory escape 
  • Resistance to change
  • Inability to recognize deception and comply with social norms 
  • perceiving emotional state 
  • grasping the big picture and 
  • motivation in areas that are not points of interests 

Strength in autism 

  • conceptual skills to model 
  • complex situations 
  • logical thinkers 
  • exceptional memories 
  • attention to minute detail
  • laser focus 
  • encyclopedic knowledge in areas of interest 
  • independent thinkers and 
  • visual processing 

Academic support during autism 

Okay, time for our last section where we are going to discuss activities strategies, and approaches for students with autism spectrum disorder

  1. depending on where the child is on the spectrum, 
  2. depends on if the child receives vocational education community skills or general education. 

Here are some of the possible accommodations and modifications;

  • Adjust the number of items the student must complete because students with ASD can be overwhelmed easily. 

When they become overwhelmed it has come for them to focus on the amount of work instead of the objective 

  • Allows students to choose areas of interest to explore within the class. 

While at the same time restricting it to a few choices

  •  Allow time to complete a task or assignment to be adjusted depending on the situation. 

The student might become either engrossed or overwhelmed this is also a good idea for those with slow motor movements. 

  • Give the student with ASD a list of how to break down a task 

which will let him keep track of 

  1. how much work needs to be done
  2. what work needs to be completed 
  3. when it will be finished and 
  4. what is next consistency and routine are very important to children with ASD. 
  5. Behavioral support

Behavioral support in autism

  • Children with autism spectrum disorder experience anxiety when they deviate from a schedule. The daily school routine should be predictable with clear expectations. 
  • Visual schedules eliminate the unexpected and enable students to prepare for transitions because transition times are often difficult for students with an autism spectrum disorder. A check schedule transition cues should be given each time a transition is expected of them. 
  • Clear and consistent rules also need to be made with clear and consistent feedback on appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Students with autism spectrum disorder must be aware of the class rules and boundaries for themselves and for their peers. 
  • Coping plans can be very effective because it shows the student how to handle a situation when he is angry anxious or stressed. 
  • The plan may include a calming area a sensory area or activities such as painting or journaling.

Social Stories & autism

Social stories can be used to teach social skills to children with an autism spectrum disorder. When a child is in a situation it may be too confusing or difficult for him, in this scenario a story may seem more concrete and understandable to the child. 

The story should highlight social cues events reactions and use visuals that are plausible within the situation. Oftentimes social stories make students with autism spectrum disorder feel comfortable and allow them to provide appropriate responses to a situation. 

Educate peers on what they might perceive as rude behaviors as opposed to what the child with autism spectrum disorder is really trying to convey. Teachers should also work to expand social reinforcers and activities. Explain the rules of social exchange and work on labeling emotions. 

Teachers need to break down the components of the exchange rules and emotions into verbal and nonverbal components. 

Classroom design in autism

Because children with autism spectrum disorder are very sensitive to visual and auditory stimuli, A teacher needs to be mindful of where the student is placed in the classroom. His seat should be placed away from excessive movement and auditory stimulation, So he can focus on the task at hand.

The classroom visual structure needs to help the student see what is expected of him and understand, what is around him. As logical thinkers students with autism spectrum disorder thrive in an environment that makes sense to them. 

Seeds and workstations should be clearly labeled as there should be no room for confusion or misinterpretation on what each section of the room is utilized for.

Assistive technology in autism

Assistive technology bridges the gap which can be so crucial for students with autism spectrum disorder here are a few examples 

Pecs or a picture exchange communication system: 

It is a low-tech picture-based system that allows the child with an autism spectrum disorder to communicate non-verbally.

It is a modified applied behavior analysis program that is not designed to teach speech although it is indirectly encouraged. It allows students who have little to no communication abilities to communicate using pictures.

Children who are using packs are taught to approach a person with a picture of what they want in exchange for the item. There are six phases of training but it can be taught to any age group. The pictures used with pecs can be photographs drawings or symbols. 

Activity schedules are extremely important in autism

The first then visual schedule or HD by good karma apps is an iPad app that provides activity schedules for students with an autism spectrum disorder. It is flexible and includes a diverse library of images audio prompts and video models for step-by-step schedules. 

Students can see the schedule by images or as a scrollable checklist with two different drag-and-drop formats. 

Conclusion

So time for a wrap-up the definition of autism spectrum disorder is consistent with the government the state of New Jersey and the DSM-5. 

Where its specifics are laid out autism spectrum disorder is a spectrum disorder which means emotional social and cognitive functioning varies depending on where the child is placed on the spectrum. 

ASD occurs in all cognitive and intellectual abilities. Social and emotional deficits are common across the entire spectrum. 

Teachers should use academic behavioral and social supports and strategies that will help the student function within the class. Assistive technologies can bridge the gap and keep students with an autism spectrum disorder.

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